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As all that is solid melts to air and everything holy is profaned...

Tuesday, September 25, 2018

Crossmichael parish 1684 and 1557

Crossmichael area from https://maps.nls.uk/atlas/blaeu/browse/114

This is a work in progress. I have found several 'parish lists' in the Register of the Privy Council (Scotland) Third Series Volume 9 compiled in 1684. Thirteen are from the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. A similar set of lists for 1684 covers all of Wigtownshire plus Minnigaff in the Stewartry.

The lists are very useful since they give the information by residence, that is by the farms the people lived on. The format is 'name of farm, names of people living on farm over the age of 12'. For Wigtownshire that is 650 farms. The residents of towns are also included, but there were only three -Wigtown, Whithorn and Stranraer - in Wigtownshire, and one and half -Kirkcudbright and Minigaff village- in the Stewartry.

I have started with Crossmichael parish because there is a list of the farms in the parish compiled in 1557 -a rental roll- for Lincluden Collegiate Church which owned the parish before the Reformation of 1560. In addition, from the Kirkcudbright Sheriff Court Deeds 1623-1700 there is evidence of a dispute over the ownership of one of the farms- Gerranton- which highlights the complexities of the Covenanting period (1660-1688) in Galloway. The Dalry Uprising of 1666 was a probable factor in the dispute, which was not resolved until 1698.

The information here should be useful for two Galloway Glens Landscape Partnership. One is a place names project, the other is a Dalry/ Covenanters project.

Nine of the farms listed contain the Gaelic place name element 'earann' -a share or a portion, as 'iron' or 'erne'. However, this must have been carried over into Scots since there are farms called Blackerne, Halferne and Chapelerne in the parish as well as Ernfillan, Ernminzie and Ernambrie.

There are other 'earann' farms in Balmaclellan and Parton parishes which are also part of the Galloway Glens place name study area, but the cluster in Crossmichael is the largest.

The Covenanter project is focused on Dalry area. The Crossmichael connection might not fit into that project. However, I have included it below anyway.

Grid reference - farm name - number residents - current name ---- 1557 Lincluden Rental Roll name

1 NX 729 677  Airds - 9 - Airds ---- The Ardis

2 NX 728 694 Blarenny - 2 - Blairinnie ---- Blaryuny

3 NX 752 709 Glengappoch - 10 - Glengappock (Glenroan farm) ---- Glengopok

4 NX 759 697 Auchendolly - 7 - Auchendolly farm  ---- Auchyndoly

5 NX 762 692  Trudall - 6 - Trowdale ---- Trodale

6  NX 768 680 Luriniane - 4 - Largneane (now Auchindolly House) ---- Largneane

7 NX 771 672 Chapelerne - 14 - Chapelerne ---- Chapelerne

8 NX 782 666 Muckle Dryburgh - 6 - Dryburgh ----- Mekle Dryburgh (also Little Dryburgh)

9 NX 785 644 Blackerne - 13 - Blackerne ---- Blaikerne

10 NX 768 643  Hilletoune -12 - Hillowton ----  Hillyntoun (Hillows tenants in 1557 and 1684))

11  NX 766 660 Clachbraine - 4 - Clarebrand ---- Clairbrand

12 NX 751  665  Ironamry Murray - 6 - Meikle Ernambrie ----Ernalaury (Murray tenant of half )

13 NX  760 659 Ironamry Wilson - 3 - Little Ernambrie  ----- Ernalaury (Wilson tenant of half )

14 NX 752 656  Ironphillan - 8 - Ernfillan (no farm)  ------- Ernefillane

15 NX  750 637  Kilnotrie - 7 - Kilnotrie ------- Culnotry

16 NX  742 681 Ironcroga - 18 - Ernecrogo ----- Erncrago

17 NX 737 667  Kilgruffe - 13 - Culgruff ----- Culcruffe

18 NX 730 663 Kirkland - 14 - Manse  ---- no entry, pre -Reformation

19 NX  741 660 Crofts - 11- Crofts ------ The Crofftis

20 NX  757 649 Ironminnie - 8 - Erneminzie ------- Ernemyne

21 NX 775 636 Ironaspy - 10 - Ernespie ----- Quesby

22 NX  760 640  Chapmantown - 5 - Chapmanton ------ Chepmantoune

23 NX 757 627 Suffolk - 7 - Fuffock (Kilmichael, house) -Ffuffok

24 NX 740 635 Mains of Greenlaw and Park - 25 - Mains of Greenlaw- The Manis of Greenlaw

25 NX  779 659 Molence- 8 - Mollance ------ Mollance

26 NX 777 651 Gerringtoune - 7 - Gerranton ------ Garrantoune (John and Ninian Garrane tenants)

27 NX 773 668 Ironannatie - 2 - Ernanity (no farm, no surviving place name)  ----- Ernannydy

28 NX  752  659  not recorded 1684 - Blackpark ----------- Blak Park

29  NX 788 659 not recorded 1684 - Dunjarg----------- Drumjarg

30 NX 739 675 not recorded 1684  - Crossmichael mill ----- Myln of Crossmichael

Case Study Gerranton NX 768 651 Crossmichael parish

Gerranton is a farm in the lowland zone (at height of 86 m 284 ft ). It is a dairy farm surrounded by other dairy farms. It is owned and farmed by J and I (father and son) Heuchan. McKerlie in his ' History of the Lands and their Owners in Galloway ' found little to say about Gerranton.

McKerlie says it belonged to John Brown of Mollance in 1613. “Between 1627 and 1698 there are the usual retours to the Lochinvar (Gordon) family, which as we have stated elsewhere, referred in many instances to the superiority only. In July 1668 Thomas Lidderdale of Gerrantoune had sasine, and again in June 1679, styled of St. Mary’s Isle, he had principle of the five merk land of Gerrantoune.” In 1799, Gerranton was part of the Mollance estate owned by William Copeland of Collieston.

However McDowall [1886], drawing on “The register Buik of the Fewis maid by the College Kirk of Linclouden 1547-64 ” is able to provide more details. For the Barony of Crossmichael in 1557, the Charter Buik lists 28 farms and a mill owned by Lincluden, and gives details of the tenants and their rents. The details given for Gerraton (Garrantoune) are:

Five merk land paying yearly 16 bolls of meal, 33 shillings 4 pence mail (cash rent) at Whitsunday and Martimas equally and 5 shillings at Lammas. In addition, 12 hens, 20 creels of peat and 3 bolls ‘multure meal’ (payment for milling) were required. There were four tenants : William Broun, John Garrane, Andrew Mackadze and Ninian Garrane.

Over 100 years later, in March 1674 [Kirkcudbright Sheriff Court Deeds 1623-1674 Entry 1712 ] John Broun of Mollance gave Alexander Milligan (then in Mains of Greenlaw, also a former Lincluden farm) tack of half of the five merkland of Gerranton from Whitsunday 1674 for payment of 100 merks ( = 33 shillings 4 pence) and two great loads ( = 4 bolls) of farm meal and two great loads of farm beir, reserving the ‘fowls payable out of the cott crofts’ for himself. One of the witnesses was ‘John Geran in Greinthorne’. 

However, in 1658, Tomas Lidderdale of Torrs (Kirkcudbright parish) sold ‘for a certain great sum of money’ 20 bolls bear, counting eight pecks to the boll and 41 loads of corn, counting 16 pecks to the load to James Aikine in Rhonehouse ‘furth of the barn and barnyard of Gerrantone, the grain being the crop of this year, 1658’. The price agreed was £5 12 shillings Scots for each boll of bear and load of corn. [KSCD Entry 0052].

But in 1662, as part of a ‘Contract of Marriage’, John Broun of Mollance promised to infeft his wife in the sum of 300 merks per year out of the lands of Mollance, Dryburgh and Gerranton. [KSCD 1623- 1674 Entry 0954]. At this time, Thomas Lidderdale, who witnessed the contract, was described as ‘in Gerranton’, i.e. the tenant. By 1668, Thomas is described as ‘of Geranton’, i.e. owner in a disposition. [KSCD 1623-1674 Entry 0519] .

In 1668, Thomas describes himself as ‘heritable proprietor’ of Mollance, Gerranton and Dryburgh, which he ‘dispones’ to he is eldest lawful son James. [KSCD 1623-1674 Entry 1079], although the same document mentions that Thomas is in dispute with John Broun of Mollance over the ownership of the said lands.

In 1698 the dispute appears to have been settled through a ‘Mutual Discharge’ [KSCD 1675-1700 Entry 3110] between James Lidderdale and John Broun (elder) of Mollance. In 1699, the Brouns are described as ‘of Mollance’ by William Gordon, Viscount of Kenmure, having stood security for a loan of 1000 merks made by John Irving, provost of Dumfries to ‘defray part of the funeral expenses of the deceased Alexander, Viscount of Kenmure’. [KSCD 1675-1700 Entry 3265].

Although at first confusing, this conflict over the ownership of Gerranton, Dryburgh and Mollance can be understood once the religious and political background of the Brouns and Lidderdales is realised. In 1662, John Broun of Mollance married Margaret McClellan, eldest lawful sister of Robert McClellan of Barscobe (Balmaclellan parish).

In 1666, Robert McClellan of Barscobe helped begin the ‘Pentland Rising’ in Dalry, fought at the battle of Rullion Green, escaped but was condemned to death and had his lands forfeit. McClellan went into hiding , but returned to fight at Bothwell Bridge in 1679. In 1682 he was captured by Claverhouse. Exhausted by 16 years ‘on the run’, McClellan agreed to sign and swear to the Test Act. He was released, only to be murdered for doing so by one William Grierson in 1683. [Torrrance: 1993]

As the brother-in-law of such a significant ‘rebel’, John Broun of Mollance would have been viewed with extreme suspicion. Any contact (actual or alleged) between himself or his wife with Robert McClellan would have been sufficient to see John forfeit his lands and risk imprisonment or even death.

In contrast, Thomas Lidderdale was a Stuart loyalist, who helped Grierson of Lag and Graham of Claverhouse in their pursuit of such ‘rebels’. [ Morton: 1914]. The 1668 ‘Disposition’ mentioned above refers to Thomas acquiring St Mary’s Isle (Kirkcudbright) and evicting Dame Anna Maxwell, widow of John (McClellan) Lord Kirkcudbright and William, their son and their tenants from the said lands for ‘wrongful possession’. John, Lord Kirkcudbright, had bankrupted his family through support for the Covenanters in the 1640s and 1650s. [Torrance: 1993].

In which case, the eventual ‘Mutual Discharge’ between James (son of the deceased Thomas) Lidderdale of St. Mary’s Isle and John Broun (elder) of Mollance regarding the lands of Gerranton of March 1698 - which left John Broun in possession - reflects the post - Revolution Settlement (1688/9) situation.

However, the Revolution Settlement was not secure. The fact that William, Viscount of Kenmure, had to borrow 1000 merks to help pay for his father’s funeral is significant. This implies that the Gordons of Kenmure were experiencing financial difficulties. This may have been a factor in William’s support for the local Jacobite Rebellion in 1715 - for which he was executed in 1716. A Jacobite victory in 1715 would have undone the Revolution Settlement and once more advantage Stuart supporters when disputes over landownership arose.


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